SPILLOVER FROM DOMESTIC ANIMALS TO WILDLIFE
There are multiple documented cases where CDV has been transmitted from domestic dogs to wildlife and additional instances where CDV in wildlife is believed to have come from domestic dogs. Both of the 1987 and 2000 CDV epizootics in Baikal and Caspian seals, respectively, likely originated from CDV epizootics in domestic dogs. Viral homology of the CDV H gene in a CDV-infected wild wolf and domestic dog suggest that domestic dogs were responsible for transmitting CDV to wild wolves in Portugal in 2007-2008.6 Between 2001 and 2003 an epizootic of CDV in black-backed jackals and other wild carnivores in Namibia was attributed to domestic dogs based on viral sequence data from the P and H genes. A CDV epizootic in domestic dogs in Kenya between 1990 and 1992 is believed to have been responsible for the disappearance of known packs of African wild dogs in the region. Also, it has been hypothesized that domestic dogs could have transmitted CDV to wild giant pandas in Wolong Reserve, China.
VACCINE-INDUCED DISEASE IN WILDLIFE
Vaccine-induced canine distemper has been demonstrated in numerous wildlife species including the African wild dog, black-footed ferret, kinkajou, lesser panda, maned wolf, and gray fox. Suspected vaccineinduced canine distemper has occurred in raccoons, fennec fox, and the South American bush dog. All have been associated with administration of various modified live vaccines.