Olson, J. K., J. K. Gaydos, T. McKlveen, R. Poppenga, K. Wicinas, E. Anderson, and S. Raverty. 2016. Conjoined fetal twins in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 52(1), 2016, pp. 173-176, DOI: 10.7589/2015-02-045.
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In July 2013, a stranded harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) died giving birth to conjoined fetuses. The twins were joined at the abdomen and thoracolumbar spine with the vertebral axis at 180°. The cause of this unique anomaly—a first for this species—was not identified.