Species of concern are native species, sub-species or ecologically significant units that warrant special attention to ensure their conservation. The number of species of concern within an ecosystem can be used as a crude measure of ecosystem health and it illustrates where cross-jurisdiction work is needed to recover declining species. Within the Salish Sea, four jurisdictions assess which species require special initiatives to ensure protection and survival of the population: the Province of British Columbia, the State of Washington, the Canadian Federal Government, and the United States Federal Government. As of January1, 2011, one or more of these jurisdictions listed 113 species of concern. This is almost twice the 64 species identified on September 1, 2008 when this metric was last evaluated. This represents new listings and also reflects an increase in the number of birds and mammals known to use the Salish Sea for some part of their life history. Since 2008, 23 new additions were made to the list due to a recent listing by one or more jurisdiction and not because of an expanded understanding of species using the ecosystem. Newly listed species include 5 fish species and 18 bird species. The addition of 23 newly listed species representsthe greatest jump in species of concern since this list was first established in 2002. This is good news in that it signifies that declining species are getting much needed attention through the listing process, but it also reinforces a downward trend in declining species in the region. In light of projected increased population growth, on-going habitat modifications and expected climate change, the number of species of concern for this ecosystem is likely to increase if listing efforts remain consistent for all four jurisdictions. Increased and improved bi-national efforts to recover declining populations of species and recover this ecosystem are urgently needed to stop the insidious loss of species and ecosystem decay.