Species of concern are native species, sub-species or ecologically significant units that warrant special attention to ensure their conservation. The number of species of concern within an ecosystem can be used as a crude measure of ecosystem health and it illustrates where cross-jurisdiction work is needed to recover declining species. Within the bi-national Puget Sound Georgia Basin marine ecosystem, an area also known as the Salish Sea, four jurisdictions assess which species require special initiatives to ensure protection and survival of the population: the Province of British Columbia, the State of Washington, the Canadian Federal Government, and the United States Federal Government. As of September 1, 2008, 64 species of concern were listed by one or more of these jurisdictions; one more than in 2006 when this list was last compiled and four more than in 2002 when this list was first compiled. Since 2006, three new species were added to the list and two were removed. Rougheye rockfish (Sebastes aleutianus) were listed as a species of special concern by the Canadian Federal Government as was the bluntnose sixgill shark (Hexanchus griseus). Additionally, Puget Sound steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were listed as threatened by the U.S. Federal Government. The shortspine thornyhead fish (Sebastolobus alascanus) changed from Canadian Federal Government candidate status to not-listed and was removed and two stocks of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) were consolidated into one due to removal of the Cherry Point stock from U.S. Federal Candidate status. Using unpublished estimates on species richness for the ecosystem, approximately 0.1% of invertebrates (3/3000), 13% of fishes (28/219), 18% of birds (23/128) and 45% (9/20) of mammals that utilize the Salish Sea marine waters are listed by one or more jurisdiction as species of concern. In light of projected increased population growth, on-going habitat modifications and expected climate change, the number of species of concern for this ecosystem is likely to increase if listing efforts remain consistent for all four jurisdictions. Increased and improved bi-national efforts to recover declining populations of species and recover this ecosystem are urgently needed to stop the insidious loss of species and ecosystem decay.